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3分钟学会继电器的作用

2017-06-02 15:55:00 字号: 分享

继电(dian)器的定(ding)义:继电(dian)器是一(yi)种当输(shu)入量(电(dian)、磁(ci)、声、光、热)达到(dao)一(yi)定(ding)值时,输(shu)出量将发生跳(tiao)跃式变(bian)化的自动控制器件。

一、继电器的工作原理和特性

当输(shu)入(ru)量(liang)(如电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)、温度等(deng))达到规定值(zhi)时,使(shi)被控制的输(shu)出电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)导通或断(duan)开(kai)的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器。可分为电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气量(liang) (  如电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)、频率、功(gong)率等(deng))继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器及非电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量(liang)(如温度、压(ya)力、速(su)度等(deng) )  继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器两(liang)大类。具有动(dong)作快、工(gong)作稳定、使(shi)用寿命(ming)长、体积小等(deng)优点。广泛应用于(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力保护(hu)、自动(dong)化(hua)、运(yun)动(dong)、遥控、测量(liang)和(he)通信等(deng)装置中。

继电(dian)(dian)器(qi)是(shi)一(yi)种电(dian)(dian)子控制(zhi)器(qi)件,它(ta)(ta)具有控制(zhi)系统(又称(cheng)输入回路(lu)(lu))和被控制(zhi)系统(又称(cheng)输出回路(lu)(lu)),通常(chang)应用于自动(dong)控制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong),它(ta)(ta)实(shi)际上是(shi)用较小的电(dian)(dian)流去控制(zhi)较大电(dian)(dian)流的一(yi)种"自动(dong)开关"。故在电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)起着自动(dong)调(diao)节、安(an)全保护(hu)、转换电(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)等作(zuo)用。

1电磁继电器的(de)工作原理(li)和特(te)性(xing)

电磁式继电器一般由(you)铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)芯、线圈、衔铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)、触点簧片(pian)等组成的(de)。只要在(zai)线圈两端加上(shang)一定的(de)电压(ya),线圈中就(jiu)会(hui)流(liu)过一定的(de)电流(liu),从而(er)产(chan)生电磁效应(ying),衔铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)就(jiu)会(hui)在(zai)电磁力吸(xi)引的(de)作用下克服(fu)返回弹簧的(de)拉(la)力吸(xi)向铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)芯,从而(er)带动衔铁(tie)(tie)(tie)(tie)的(de)动触点与静触点(常开触点)吸(xi)合。

当线圈(quan)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)后(hou),电(dian)(dian)磁的(de)吸(xi)力也随之(zhi)消(xiao)失,衔(xian)铁就(jiu)会在弹簧的(de)反作用力返回原(yuan)来的(de)位置,使动(dong)触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)与原(yuan)来的(de)静触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(常(chang)(chang)闭触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian))吸(xi)合。这样吸(xi)合、释放,从而(er)达到了在电(dian)(dian)路中的(de)导通(tong)、切断(duan)的(de)目的(de)。对(dui)于(yu)继电(dian)(dian)器的(de)"常(chang)(chang)开(kai)、常(chang)(chang)闭"触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian),可以这样来区分:继电(dian)(dian)器线圈(quan)未通(tong)电(dian)(dian)时(shi)处(chu)于(yu)断(duan)开(kai)状(zhuang)态(tai)的(de)静触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian),称为(wei)"常(chang)(chang)开(kai)触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)";处(chu)于(yu)接通(tong)状(zhuang)态(tai)的(de)静触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)称为(wei)"常(chang)(chang)闭触(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)(dian)"。

2热敏干簧(huang)继电(dian)器的工(gong)作原理和特性

热(re)敏(min)干(gan)(gan)簧继(ji)电(dian)器(qi)是(shi)一种利用(yong)热(re)敏(min)磁性(xing)材料(liao)检测和控(kong)制温(wen)度的(de)新(xin)型(xing)热(re)敏(min)开关(guan)。它由感(gan)温(wen)磁环、恒磁环、干(gan)(gan)簧管、导(dao)热(re)安(an)装片、塑料(liao)衬底及其他一些附件组(zu)成(cheng)。热(re)敏(min)干(gan)(gan)簧继(ji)电(dian)器(qi)不用(yong)线圈励磁,而由恒磁环产(chan)生的(de)磁力驱动开关(guan)动作(zuo)。恒磁环能否向干(gan)(gan)簧管提供磁力是(shi)由感(gan)温(wen)磁环的(de)温(wen)控(kong)特性(xing)决定的(de)。

3固态继电器(SSR)的工作原理和特(te)性

固(gu)态(tai)继电器是一种两(liang)个接(jie)线端(duan)为(wei)输入端(duan),另(ling)两(liang)个接(jie)线端(duan)为(wei)输出(chu)端(duan)的四(si)端(duan)器件(jian),中间采(cai)用隔(ge)离器件(jian)实现输入输出(chu)的电隔(ge)离。

固(gu)态继电器按负载电源(yuan)类型(xing)可(ke)分为交流型(xing)和直流型(xing)。按开关型(xing)式可(ke)分为常(chang)开型(xing)和常(chang)闭型(xing)。按隔离(li)型(xing)式可(ke)分为混合型(xing)、变压(ya)器隔离(li)型(xing)和光电隔离(li)型(xing),以(yi)光电隔离(li)型(xing)为最多。

二、继电器主要产品技术参数

1、额定工作电压

是(shi)指继(ji)电(dian)器(qi)(qi)正常(chang)工作时线(xian)圈所(suo)需要的电(dian)压(ya)。根据继(ji)电(dian)器(qi)(qi)的型(xing)号(hao)不同,可(ke)以是(shi)交流电(dian)压(ya),也可(ke)以是(shi)直流电(dian)压(ya)。

2、直流(liu)电(dian)阻(zu)

是(shi)指(zhi)继电(dian)(dian)器中线圈的直流电(dian)(dian)阻(zu),可以通过万能表测量。

3、吸合电流

是(shi)指继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)能够产生吸合动(dong)作的最小电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)。在正常使用时,给定的电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)必须略(lve)大于吸合电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),这样继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)才能稳(wen)定地(di)工(gong)(gong)作。而对于线(xian)圈(quan)所加的工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya),一般不(bu)要超过额(e)定工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)的1.5倍(bei),否则会产生较(jiao)大的电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)而把线(xian)圈(quan)烧毁。

4、释放(fang)电流(liu)

是(shi)指继(ji)电(dian)器产(chan)生(sheng)释放动作的(de)(de)最大(da)电(dian)流。当继(ji)电(dian)器吸(xi)合(he)状态的(de)(de)电(dian)流减小到一(yi)定(ding)程度时(shi),继(ji)电(dian)器就会恢(hui)复到未通电(dian)的(de)(de)释放状态。这时(shi)的(de)(de)电(dian)流远远小于(yu)吸(xi)合(he)电(dian)流。

5、触点切换(huan)电压和电流

是指(zhi)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)允许(xu)加载的电(dian)(dian)压和(he)电(dian)(dian)流。它决定了继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)能控制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)压和(he)电(dian)(dian)流的大小,使用(yong)时不(bu)能超过此值,否则很(hen)容易损坏继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)的触(chu)点。

三、继电器测试

1、测触点电(dian)阻

用万能表的电阻(zu)(zu)档(dang),测量常(chang)闭触(chu)点与动点电阻(zu)(zu),其阻(zu)(zu)值应为(wei)0,(用更加(jia)精确方式可测得触(chu)点阻(zu)(zu)值在100毫欧(ou)以内(nei));而(er)常(chang)开(kai)触(chu)点与动点的阻(zu)(zu)值就为(wei)无穷大(da)。由此可以区别出那个是(shi)常(chang)闭触(chu)点,那个是(shi)常(chang)开(kai)触(chu)点。

2、测(ce)线(xian)圈(quan)电阻

可用万(wan)能(neng)表R10档测量继(ji)电(dian)器线圈的(de)阻值,从而判断该(gai)线圈是否存(cun)在着开路现象。

3、测(ce)量吸(xi)(xi)合电压和吸(xi)(xi)合电流

找来可调稳压(ya)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源和电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流表,给继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器输入一组(zu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya),且(qie)在供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)回路中(zhong)串(chuan)入电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流表进行监测。慢慢调高电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya),听到继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器吸(xi)合(he)声时,记下该吸(xi)合(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)和吸(xi)合(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流。为求准确,可以试多几次而(er)求平(ping)均值。

4、测量释放(fang)电压和释放(fang)电流

也是像上述那(nei)样连接(jie)测(ce)试(shi),当继电(dian)器(qi)发生吸合后,再逐渐降(jiang)低(di)供电(dian)电(dian)压(ya),当听到继电(dian)器(qi)再次(ci)发生释(shi)(shi)放(fang)声音时,记下此时的(de)电(dian)压(ya)和电(dian)流,亦可尝试(shi)多几次(ci)而取得平均的(de)释(shi)(shi)放(fang)电(dian)压(ya)和释(shi)(shi)放(fang)电(dian)流。

一(yi)般情况下,继电(dian)(dian)器的释(shi)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)约在吸(xi)合电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)的10~50%,如(ru)果释(shi)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)太小(xiao)(小(xiao)于(yu)1/10的吸(xi)合电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)),则不(bu)能(neng)正常使(shi)用了,这(zhei)样会(hui)对(dui)电(dian)(dian)路的稳(wen)定性造成威胁,工(gong)作不(bu)可靠。

四、继电器的电符号和触点形式

继电器线圈(quan)在电路中(zhong)用一个长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框(kuang)符(fu)(fu)号表示,如果继电器有两(liang)个线圈(quan),就画两(liang)个并列的(de)长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框(kuang)。同时在长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框(kuang)内(nei)或长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框(kuang)旁标(biao)上继电器的(de)文(wen)字符(fu)(fu)号"J"。

继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器的(de)触(chu)(chu)点(dian)有(you)两种(zhong)(zhong)表示(shi)方法(fa):一(yi)(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)把(ba)它们(men)直接(jie)画在长方框(kuang)一(yi)(yi)侧,这种(zhong)(zhong)表示(shi)法(fa)较为直观(guan)。另(ling)一(yi)(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)是(shi)按照电(dian)(dian)(dian)路连接(jie)的(de)需要(yao),把(ba)各个触(chu)(chu)点(dian)分别画到各自的(de)控制电(dian)(dian)(dian)路中,通常在同一(yi)(yi)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器的(de)触(chu)(chu)点(dian)与线圈旁分别标(biao)注上相同的(de)文字符号,并将触(chu)(chu)点(dian)组(zu)编上号码(ma),以示(shi)区(qu)别。

继电器的(de)触点(dian)有(you)三种基本形式(shi):

1、动(dong)合型(xing)(H型(xing))线圈(quan)不通电时(shi)两(liang)(liang)触(chu)(chu)点是断开(kai)的,通电后,两(liang)(liang)个触(chu)(chu)点就(jiu)闭合。以合字的拼音字头(tou)"H"表示。

2、动(dong)断型(D型)线(xian)圈不通(tong)电(dian)时两(liang)触点是闭合的,通(tong)电(dian)后两(liang)个触点就(jiu)断开。用断字(zi)的拼音字(zi)头"D"表示。

3、转(zhuan)(zhuan)换(huan)(huan)型(Z型)这(zhei)是触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)组(zu)型。这(zhei)种(zhong)触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)组(zu)共有三个(ge)(ge)触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian),即中间是动触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian),上下各一个(ge)(ge)静触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)。线圈不通(tong)(tong)电时,动触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)和(he)其中一个(ge)(ge)静触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)断开(kai)和(he)另一个(ge)(ge)闭合,线圈通(tong)(tong)电后,动触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)就移动,使(shi)原(yuan)来(lai)断开(kai)的成(cheng)闭合,原(yuan)来(lai)闭合的成(cheng)断开(kai)状(zhuang)态,达到(dao)转(zhuan)(zhuan)换(huan)(huan)的目(mu)的。这(zhei)样的触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)组(zu)称(cheng)为转(zhuan)(zhuan)换(huan)(huan)触(chu)(chu)(chu)点(dian)(dian)。用(yong)"转(zhuan)(zhuan)"字的拼(pin)音(yin)字头"z"表示(shi)。

五、继电器的选用

1、先了解必要的条件:

①控制电(dian)路(lu)的电(dian)源(yuan)电(dian)压,能(neng)提供的最大电(dian)流(liu);

②被控制电路中(zhong)的电压和电流;

③被控电(dian)路(lu)需要几组、什么形式的(de)(de)触点。选用(yong)继(ji)电(dian)器时,一般控制(zhi)电(dian)路(lu)的(de)(de)电(dian)源电(dian)压可(ke)作为选用(yong)的(de)(de)依(yi)据。控制(zhi)电(dian)路(lu)应能给继(ji)电(dian)器提供足够的(de)(de)工作电(dian)流(liu),否则继(ji)电(dian)器吸合是不稳定的(de)(de)。

2、查(cha)阅有(you)关(guan)资(zi)料确定使用条件后(hou),可查(cha)找相(xiang)关(guan)资(zi)料,找出需要(yao)的(de)继电器的(de)型号(hao)(hao)和规(gui)格号(hao)(hao)。若(ruo)手头已有(you)继电器,可依据资(zi)料核对是否(fou)可以利用。最后(hou)考虑尺寸是否(fou)合适(shi)。

3、注意器(qi)具的容积(ji)。若(ruo)是用(yong)于(yu)(yu)一般(ban)用(yong)电器(qi),除(chu)考虑(lv)机箱容积(ji)外,小型(xing)继电器(qi)主要考虑(lv)电路板安装布局(ju)。对(dui)于(yu)(yu)小型(xing)电器(qi),如(ru)玩具、遥控装置则应选用(yong)超(chao)小型(xing)继电器(qi)产品。



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